Second Edition. Roger L. Fundamentals of telecommunications / by Roger L. Freeman.–2nd ed. p. cm. Includes Essential Concepts in Transmission. telecommunications essentials second edition book by pearson education Ebook PDF at our. Library. Get telecommunications essentials. Telecommunications Essentials - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File . txt) or read book online. It also explores next-generation network services. .. clothing. and hence the greater the number of bits per second. weighing in at 4.
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You can check your reasoning as you tackle a problem using our interactive solutions viewer. Plus, we regularly update and improve textbook solutions based on student ratings and feedback, so you can be sure you're getting the latest information available. Circuits A circuit is the physical path that runs between two or more points.
For more learning resources. There are five main types of transmission lines—circuits. Telecommunications Technology Fundamentals This chapter talks about the types of transmission lines and network connections. In the case of human communications. We communicate by using data devices over what is generically termed a transmission line. The following sections describe each of these types of transmission lines in detail.
As you can see. The other wire acts as the return path to complete the electrical circuit. Two-wire and four-wire have to do with the number of electrical conductors associated with a transmission line.
Four-wire circuits are also used with leased lines. Two-wire circuits are generally deployed in the analog local loop. Four-Wire Circuits A four-wire circuit has two pairs of conductors. Two-pair and four-pair refer to the number of wires in the internal cabling plan.
Figure 2. There are two types of circuits: Four-wire circuits are used where there is distance between the termination points which requires that the signal be strengthened periodically. Two-Wire Circuits A two-wire circuit has two insulated electrical conductors. A four-wire circuit In and of itself.
One wire is used for transmission of the information. So you can't always tell just by looking what kind of circuit you're dealing with. They could only amplify a signal moving in one direction. The PSTN traditionally used copper wires. The number of channels on a transmission line determines the number of simultaneous conversations that can be supported. In physical fourwire you can actually count four wires.
It is the frequency band. In logical four-wire. But in building out the millions of local loops for subscribers. The distance requirement between amplifiers is relatively short on copper wires—generally about 6. Repeaters are discussed later in this chapter. There are two types of four-wire circuits: An amplifier boosts an attenuated signal back up to its original power level so it can continue to make its way across the network.
Based on how quickly the signals flow through the copper wires. Because the local loops are short. These tools are called amplifiers and repeaters. First-generation amplifiers were unidirectional.
Using two-wire and four-wire circuits Channels A channel defines a logical coversation path. As networks were built. A channel is a child of the digital age because digital facilities enable multiple channels.
Because we are becoming more digitalized all the time. Half of the frequency band carries the transmit signal. Lines and Trunks Lines and trunks are basically the same thing. The only kind of call that a local exchange can complete on its own. Local exchanges are discussed in detail in Chapter 5.
Each individual single-line instrument represents a subscriber line.
Telecommunications Essentials, Second Edition Solutions Manual
The connection from this PBX to the PSTN occurs over a trunk that is specifically configured to carry the calling load of multiple users. A PBX is used to establish connections between two points. A switching system is a device that connects two transmission lines together.
Network switches— A hierarchy of network switches has evolved over time. A line is a connection that is configured to support a normal calling load generated by one individual.
It establishes connections between telephones that are internal to the organization. The traditional local exchange switch can handle one or more exchanges.
Above the single-line instrument is a business enterprise with a PBX. There are two major categories of switching systems: A trunk is a circuit that is configured to support the calling loads generated by a group of users.
Each end user's connection would be referred to as a station line. The term virtual circuit is largely used to describe connections between two hosts in a packet-switching network.
The virtual circuit is a connection between two devices that acts as though it's a direct connection. A virtual circuit There are two types of virtual circuits: The tandem switch is used to connect local exchanges throughout the metropolitan area.
On the other hand. Virtual Circuits Today. The toll center is responsible for establishing and completing national. A trunk supplies the connections between the numerous switches within the PSTN. When it's time to make a toll call. Unlike a physical circuit. A connection is established after both devices exchange agreement on communications parameters that are important to establishing and maintaining the connection and on providing the proper performance for the application they are supporting.
The top of the hierarchy is the international gateway. These connections are defined by table entries inside the switch. Chapter 5 describes in detail the entities involved in managing local. The types of communication parameters that could be included are message size. They are provisioned dynamically by using signaling techniques. The vast majority of implementations today involve PVCs.
It is always connected and it always uses the same path for transmission. This implies that you're using a series of network switches to establish the connection between the parties. SVCs are set up on demand. Dedicated network connections— In essence. The main benefit of an SVC is that you can use it to access the network from anyplace.
An SVC must be reestablished each time data is to be sent. A PVC is manually configured by a network management system. The predominant application for SVCs is to accommodate people who are working at home. Its use is analogous to the use of a dedicated private line because it provides an always-on condition between two locations or two devices.
This phenomenon was first predicted to exist by James Maxwell. The Electromagnetic Spectrum When electrons move. Leased-line network connections— A leased line is also referred to as a private line. All modern communication depends on manipulating and controlling signals within the electromagnetic spectrum.
Frame Relay. Types of Network Connections Three major types of networks connections can be made: With a leased line. Although the electromagnetic spectrum represents an enormous range of frequencies. At the high end of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Intense infrasonic calls have also been recorded from finback whales. This end of the spectrum has phenomenal bandwidth. One of the benefits of a very low frequency is that it can travel much farther than a high frequency before it loses power that is. At the very low end of the spectrum are signals that would be traveling at 30Hz that is.
We're still here" is sent. We do this by modulating the amplitudes. The electromagnetic spectrum is depicted as a logarithmic progression: The scale increases by multiples of So a 30Hz signal provides the benefit of being able to travel halfway around the world before it requires some form of amplification.
The higher up in the spectrum you go. Infrasound and the Animal World The universe is full of infrasound—the frequencies below the range of human hearing. It seems that elephants communicate with one another by using calls that are too low-pitched for human beings to hear.
It is little affected by passage through forests and grasslands. Bandwidth is actually a measure of the difference between the lowest and highest frequencies being carried. The wave forms are so miniscule that they're highly distorted by any type of interference. Along the right-hand side is the terminology that the International Telecommunication Union ITU applies to the various bands: Extremely low.
The electromagnetic spectrum ranges from extremely low-frequency radio waves of 30Hz. You can see just by the placement of the various transmission media that not all are prepared to face the high-bandwidth future that demanding advanced applications such as And then we move into the light range.
Each of these communications bands offers differing amounts of bandwidth. Because of the problems with very low and very high frequencies. An electromagnetic wave The electromagnetic spectrum The radio. You can also modulate amplitude by sending ones at a high amplitude or voltage and zeros at a low amplitude. It gives us GHz to operate with.
A complementary receiving device could then determine whether a one or a zero is being sent. Bandwidth— The range of frequencies that is. The radio range. Amplitude— Amplitude is a measure of the height of the wave. Twisted-pair will see little use with the future application set. As yet another example. Hertz— Frequency is measured in Hertz Hz. Wavelength— The wavelength is the distance between two consecutive maxima or minima of the wave form.
In comparison. Phase— Phase refers to the angle of the wave form at any given moment.
Devices that do this are called frequency-modulated devices. The receiving device could discriminate between these two bit states zero versus one based on the phase of the wave as compared to a reference wave.
One way to manipulate frequency is by sending ones at a high frequency and zeros at a low frequency. Telecommunications devices and the electromagnetic spectrum It is the international standard used throughout Europe. Wideband Wideband is defined as being n x 64Kbps. Fractional services are normally provided in bundles of 4. Bandwidth As mentioned earlier. If we combine these 64Kbps channels together. High-bandwidth facilities include T J-carrier is the Japanese standard.
Broadband A range of services are provisioned to support wideband capabilities.
E-3 offers 34Mbps. There are three major classes of bandwidth that we refer to in telecommunications networks: T-1 is used in the United States. Not every office or application requires the total capacity of T T-3 offers 45Mbps. It is also used in some overseas territories. This is the fundamental increment on which digital networks were built.
Narrowband Narrowband means that you can accommodate up to 64Kbps. These are the services on which the first generation of digital hierarchy was built. T-1 offers 1. Those changes in air pressure fall onto the handset.
To extract and make use of the inherent capacity that fiber optics affords. In the wireless realm. Given today's environment. In the case of telephony.
The future hierarchy. That is an incredible speed. Analog transmission Analog and Digital Transmission There are a number of differences between analog and digital transmission. Let's look first at the older form of transmission. Technically speaking. But what does that really mean? But this definition was created in the s. Keep in mind that underlying all the various changes in telecommunications technologies and infrastructures. But we can pretty easily say that broadband is always a multichannel facility that affords higher capacities than the traditional voice channel.
Those fluctuations in current are an analog of the actual voice pattern—hence the use of the term analog to describe these signals see Figure 2. It can be difficult to grasp what these measurements really mean. Not many people have a computer capable of capturing 10Gbps. The starting rate that is.
The Impact of Fiber Optics on Bandwidth So far this chapter has used a lot of bits-per-second measurements. Analog Transmission An analog wave form or signal is characterized by being continuously variable along amplitude and frequency. The same concept applies in analog networks: After you mix the signal and the noise. The maximum data rate over an analog facility is Each computer uses a coding scheme that defines what combinations of ones and zeros constitute all the characters in a character set that is.
All it knows how to do is to add power. Digital Transmission Digital transmission is quite different from analog transmission. The human voice. Analog facilities have limited bandwidth. As the signal moves across the distance. That's why analog circuits can conduct only fairly low-speed data communications.
How 56Kbps Modems Break the Rather than being a continuously variable wave form. For one thing. Another characteristic of analog is that noise is accumulated as the signal traverses the network.
To provision a voice-grade analog circuit. When it comes to an analog circuit—what we also refer to as a voice-grade line—we need to also define the frequency band in which it operates.
One of the problems with a basic amplifier is that it is a dumb device. But the ear does not require a vast range of frequencies to elicit meaning from ordinary speech.
Remember that the total frequency spectrum of twisted-pair is 1MHz. So in an analog network. After you mix together coffee and cream. By the time the signal arrives at the amplifier. The other end of the connection has to be digital. But along with an increased signal. Because a digital signal is easier to reproduce than an analog signal. In electrical networks. The repeater regenerates a new signal to pass on to the next point in the network.
Digital transmission How the ones and zeros are physically carried through the network depends on whether the network is electrical or optical. But the weakened and impaired signal enters the regenerative repeater.
Rather than use dumb amplifiers. As a strong. Table 2.
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Analog Versus Digital Transmission Table 2. The digital pulse. In optical networks. ISDN modems. There are also modems that are designed to work specifically with digital facilities for example. The devices that handle these conversions are codecs and modems see Figure 2.
A conversion is a point at which network troubles can occur. In cellular networks. Codecs applied to video communication also require very specific compression techniques to be able to move those high-bandwidth signals over what may be somewhat limited channels today.
A modem manipulates the variables of the electromagnetic wave to differentiate between the ones and zeros. For the PSTN. Some modems are designed specifically to work with analog voice-grade lines.
Codecs and Modems The fact is that today we don't have all-digital or all-analog networks. A modem which is a contraction of modulator-demodulator is used to infuse digital data onto transmission facilities. There are different codecs for different purposes. Although it is possible to convert between analog and digital networks. Codecs and modems A codec which is a contraction of coder-decoder converts analog signals into digital signals. ADSL modems. Let's say this network is for Bob's department stores.
Their main reason for being is to reduce network costs by minimizing the number of communications links needed between two points. As with all other computing systems.
The types of benefits that have accrued. You can provide extremely high levels of service by ensuring that everybody always has a live and available communications link. Multiplexing Multiplexers. This means that nowhere between the transmitter and the receiver do signal conversions need to be done. When you're working with network design and telecommunications.
But you must pay for those services on an ongoing basis. You can offset the costs associated with providing large numbers of lines by instead using devices such as multiplexers that help you make more intelligent use of a smaller group of lines. If you have only one 64Kbps channel left. Location B.
Given that it's a sales transaction. A network without multiplexers Or what happens when the link between San Francisco and Hong Kong goes down? How else can you reroute traffic to get the high-priority information where it needs to go? Multiplexers help solve such problems. Many customers will want to make downloads using their Bob's credit cards. Each new generation has additional intelligence. The capability to manage transmission resources on a dynamic basis. The capability to do error detection and correction between the two points that are being connected to ensure that data integrity and accuracy are being maintained.
Remember that the use of leased lines is a very expensive type of network connection. The key savings in this scenario comes from using only one leased line between New York and California. The astute network manager at Bob's tries to think about ways to make the network less expensive. In San Francisco. With leased lines. But leased lines have another negative attribute: They are mileage sensitive.
And in a network that doesn't efficiently make use of that communications link all day long. A network with multiplexers Multiplexers always come in pairs. One solution. Even though it is the most expensive approach to networking. Because this network resource has been reserved for one company's usage only.
They are also symmetrical. Intelligence embedded in the multiplexers allows the network manager to manage access to that bandwidth and to allocate network services to the endpoints. In cable TV. FDM If an enterprise has a high degree of moves.
When you enter a channel number on your set-top box or cable-ready TV. Each user is assigned to a different frequency. FDM FDM is an environment in which the entire frequency band available on the communications link is divided into smaller individual bands or channels see Figure 2.
FDM would be an expensive system to maintain because it would require the additional expertise of frequency engineering and reconfiguration. For instance. The signals all travel in parallel over the same communications link. The following sections examine each of these techniques. A disadvantage of frequency division muxes is that they can be difficult to reconfigure in an environment in which there's a great deal of dynamic change. Given the environment today. STDM There are various levels of TDM.
Digital cellular systems are discussed in Chapter The allocated time slots have to be framed in order for the individual channels to be separated out.
A problem with a standard timedivision mux is that there is a one-to-one correlation between each port and time slot. In the plain-vanilla TDM model. That time slot would enable one character of data. Each device in a predetermined sequence is allotted a time slot during which it can transmit.
In fact. Statistical time-division multiplexers. Intelligent multiplexing: Concentrators With digital technology. This allows you to eliminate much of what used to be an analog plant leading up to the local exchange. ATM are built. Rather than being a device used in pairs. Intelligent Multiplexing An intelligent multiplexer is often referred to as a concentrator.
It also allows you to provide service to customers who are outside the distance specifications between a subscriber and the local exchange. Instead of using each pair individually per subscriber from the local exchange to the subscriber. A good example of a concentrator is in a device called the digital loop carrier DLC.
Before the advent of DLCs. Because of the dynamic allocation of time slots. If the demand increased beyond the number of pairs you had available out of that local exchange.
You use a series of either fiber-optic pairs or microwave beams to connect the local exchange to this intermediate DLC. A stat mux is a smarter mux and it has more memory than other muxes. When you get to the DLC. In Figure 2. Stat muxes are extremely important because they are the basis on which packet-switching technologies for example. By dynamically allocating the time slots. If the buffer fills up. The main benefit of a stat mux is the efficient use of bandwidth.
An inverse mux allows them to do so. A primary application for inverse multiplexers is to support of high-bandwidth applications such as videoconferencing. Characteristics and Applications. Very few customers are willing to pay for a 1. For a good-quality. Inverse Multiplexing The inverse multiplexer arrived on the scene in the s.
It does the opposite of what the multiplexers described so far do. For those people to be able to subscribe to the new high-bandwidth DSL services. It's one thing to tolerate pixelation or artifacts in motion for a minute meeting that saves you the time of driving to meet your colleague. At the destination point. Rather than combine lots of low-bit-rate streams to ride over a high-bit-rate pipe. And in general.
Inverse multiplexing But the nature of a concentrator is that it enables you to aggregate numerous low-speed residential lines and to multiplex them onto high-bandwidth facilities to pass off to the local exchange. The company policy is to hold a two-hour videoconferenced meeting twice each month.
And there are systems in trial that operate at OC In the future. Inverse multiplexing therefore allows you to experience a bit of elastic bandwidth.
One thing to clarify about the first use of WDM is that unlike with the other types of multiplexing. Soon light sources should be able to pulse in the terabits per second range. EDFAs also paved the way to developing wavelength division multiplexers. WDM is meant to furnish separate channels for each service.
The introduction of EDFAs immediately opened up the opportunity to make use of fiber-optic systems operating at 10Gbps. And because repeaters were originally electronic. In Part of the evolution of WDM is that every year we double the number of bits per second that can be carried on a wavelength.
The data rate that's supported by each of the wavelengths depends on the type of light source. Before the advent of WDM. This was mainly because we had to convert the optical pulses into electrical signals to regenerate them as they moved through the fiber network.
You can allocate existing capacity to a high-bandwidth application without having to subscribe to a separate link just for that purpose. We have light sources that operate at OC Erbium is a chemical that's injected into the fiber. But we have just begun. As a light pulse passes through the erbium. Telecommunications Essentials is comprehensive, user-friendly, insightful, and fun. Lili Goleniewski wrote that book.
Her second edition is an outstanding contribution to the field and will be the best teaching aid I have ever had. If you teach you should use this book. If you want to really learn about telecommunications and data networks you should insist that your school adopt the book as a text.
It is about all of these and much more. It requires years of expertise in this fascinating field, combined with skillful writing ability, to develop a book that presents in an interesting and insightful manner the multifaceted disciplines of telecommunications.
Lillian Goleniewski has accomplished this immense task with great skill in her book Telecommunications Essentials. Beginning students and professionals alike will benefit from this book.In the early years of liberalization.
Smell can be used to attract visitors to Web sites. J-carrier is the Japanese standard. The greatest use of twisted-pair in the future is likely to be in the enterprise premises. You can use the online glossary to search thousands of terms to find definitions quickly. Amplitude— Amplitude is a measure of the height of the wave.
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